Spring Gives, We Forage
I have to be honest, I haven’t been thinking about the land since the fall. I have been so involved in other projects that I STILL have not given more than a fleeting thought to planning our garden.
But, no matter how negligent I may be, spring calls me now. It has wooed me back to the land, and I know now that the problem was truly me–not it.
I have foraging on the mind once again, though I feel a bit rusty after a winter in the damp, dark tool shed of my own isolation. Seeing green popping up and out all over has reminded me that I need to be present among these growing things, that I need to learn what they are, what they have to offer, and how our family can best use them.
Spring gives, we forage.
But, before we do, we recall three simple foraging rules: correct identification, minimal harvesting, and safe, legal picking.
Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica) has done much to draw me out of my wintry malaise. When I first noticed it peeking out from beneath our slumping retaining wall, I suddenly felt the urge to tour our yard and greet all the new plants bursting up. We love this plant in our household–stings and all.
Identifying Stinging Nettle
Stinging nettle is fairly distinctive. Like any plant it looks different at different times of the year. At certain points it may be easier to identify than others, but stinging nettle has three distinguishing attributes all year long that make it pretty easy to ID. There are a few other varieties of nettle that it can be confused with, but if you pay attention to the following features, you can be pretty confident of a correct identification.
First, the leaves. They are mostly oval or slightly heart-shaped and heavily toothed or serrated at the margins. They come to a point and are covered with fine barb-like hairs. The leaves are heavily veined and the undersides tend to have a purple hue between the veins.
Compare this leaf to some of the older leaves in this image from the USDA, which are more distinctly heart shaped:
Next, the stem. The stem of a stinging nettle, just like the leaves, is covered in small, barb-like, stinging thorns or hairs. And the leaves attach to the stem opposite one another.
Finally, the sting. If you touch a plant that looks like nettle and gives you a noticeable sting, it is probably stinging nettle. The sting is not excruciating, but it is real, and the pain from it does hang on for some time–from a few minutes to hours. The small hollow hairs contain the chemicals that cause the sting, so to avoid the sting, avoid breaking them–handle with care. A UK chemistry teacher writing at the blog Compound Interest has done a great job explaining some of the chemistry behind nettle’s sting. Check it out for more info. (Note also that the sting is removed during cooking.)
Of course there are other things to pay attention to if you want to be absolutely sure of your identification of stinging nettle, but out of the many plants you can forage, stinging nettle is pretty distinctive because of the thorny, hairy, toothed stinging leaves. For help distinguishing it from the other nettle lookalikes, I heartily recommend this article at Identifythatplant.com.
Stinging nettle lives up to its name, so if you want to avoid the sting, either:
- Wear decently thick gloves, or
- Carefully fold and grab the leaves while pulling toward the leaf tip. The goal here is to avoid breaking the hollow barbs off in your skin–that’s when you get stung. Here is a video demonstrating this technique:
With both of these techniques, you can–and perhaps should–use scissors or some other suitable cutting tool, though you may gently pinch the leaves off as well.
Following the simple foraging rules, remember to be sure that it is free to harvest. Are there critters living in it? Is it on your grouchy neighbor’s property? And be sure to harvest no more than 1/3 of the plant. Leave some for it to thrive and propagate.
The young smaller leaves, which emerge from the very apex of the stems, are usually the most tender and palatable. Choose those over the older ones, unless you don’t mind a more robust experience. Don’t harvest the stems. It’s not that they will poison you, they are just not very palatable. The stems are apparently useful for making rope because the fibers are so strong. If you’re interested in doing that, have at it.
The best time to harvest it for eating is now–in the early spring when they first start to emerge, and especially before they flower. Some believe that after nettles have flowered, consuming them in great amounts can lead to kidney stones. Which is ironic because they are also used as a prevention against kidney stones… But, to be safe, if you mean to eat it or drink a tea made from it, harvest nettle before it flowers.
In case you are wondering, it looks like this when it flowers:
Since nettles are best in the spring, you’ll want to preserve some to enjoy year round. Nettles can be preserved by:
- Dehydration: We simply dry nettle in our food dehydrator, but any other method for drying herbs will work.
- Freezing: Blanch and freeze whole nettle leaves in freezer bags. Alternatively, you can freeze nettle pesto in an ice cube tray, or nettle soup in glass containers.
Uses and Recipes
You may be wondering about the sting. Why would you want to consume something that leaves you tingling? Surely that must be unpleasant. Be assured that cooking removes the chemical compound that causes the sting, and nettle leaves are perfectly safe to consume once prepared.
Nettle is highly nutritious and can be enjoyed as a fresh or dried tea, a pesto star, in a vinegar, or even as medicine. Give it a try! Here are some recipes & resources to get you started:
- Stinging Nettle and Sharp Cheddar Omelet (Nourished Kitchen)
- Stinging Nettle Chips (Learning and Yearning)
- How to Make Nettle Pesto (Marblemount Homestead)
- Nourishing Nettle Soup ( The Nourishing Gourmet)
- Stinging Nettle: Weekly Weeder– includes a recipe for nettle used as a rennet substitute. (Common Sense Homesteading)
- Making & Using Nettle Powder for Nutrition & Health (Healing Harvest Homestead)
- How to Use Nettle for Seasonal Allergies (Schneider Peeps)
- Herbal Teas You Can Grow or Forage Yourself (They’re Not Our Goats)
- DIY Detox Herbal Infusion (Untrained Housewife)
- Stinging Nettle Recipes for Spring Eating (Herbal Academy)
- 12 Nettle Recipes to Add to Your Cookbook (Herbal Academy)
- 17 Uses for Wild Greens (They’re Not Our Goats)
Have you harvested stinging nettle? How do you like to use it? Leave us a comment and let us know!
Admittedly, it’s a little early in the season to begin talking about garden-based sandwiches. But I actually used the ends of last year’s garden veggies that were chopped up in the freezer for this recipe… so it counts!
This is a typical sausage and pepper sandwich given a nutritional boost via garden veggies and wild greens, fresh harvested from the yard. It’s great for the non-veggie lover, because the peppers and eggplant remain low profile and blend in with the flavor of the sausage. (Especially if you chop the veggies small enough. 😉 ) This is also a great place to give wild foraged greens a try- chances are, you won’t even notice them in amongst all the other goodies.
As usual with my recipes, please feel free to fudge the ingredient amounts and/or choice of add-ins. It’s all up to your pallet! You will need:
- 1 lb Italian sausage (I used loose sausage because I could mix it with the veggies, and I feel it spreads to feed more people. Use links if you prefer a meatier sandwich.)
- 2 bell peppers, chopped
- 1 onion, chopped
- 1 cup add-in veggie, chopped. I used eggplant, but I imagine zucchini, corn, or a combo would be tasty!
- 3 cloves garlic, minced
- 1 Tbsp dried basil (or 1/4 C chopped fresh basil)
- About 2 cups pasta sauce (give or take, depending on how saucy you like it). I used our home-canned pasta sauce from the garden last year- mmm, mmm.
- 1 cup chopped wild greens (I used stinging nettle, plantain leaves, and dandelion leaves– please do look up the identification of these plants if you are unsure of any of them!)
- Sandwich rolls or buns (We frequently use this recipe for easy homemade rolls.)
- Mozzarella and/or Parmesan cheese for topping.
1) Cook sausage, peppers, onion, and add-in veggie together in the skillet. (if your add-in requires less cooking time, add it later with the sauce instead.) Drain the fat.
2) Add in garlic and basil, and cook only 2-3 minutes, or until fragrant.
3) Add sauce (and quick-cooking add-in veggies if you have them) and heat through til it’s simmering.
4) Add greens and cook until wilted, 2-3 minutes. (If you use stinging nettles, DO make sure you cook them so you don’t get an unpleasant surprise.)
5) Slice your sandwich rolls and top with sausage mixture and cheeses. You can eat it just like that, or you can melt it under the broiler for 3 or 4 minutes (until cheese is golden-brown). Watch it carefully- it burns quickly in there!
This made about ten sandwiches for us, but a couple of those contained kid-sized scoops of the sausage mixture. It will probably make 4-8 for adults, depending on how much you like to stuff yours with filling. 🙂
This was a hit with everybody at our house! We also served extra sauce to dip in on the side. Hope you enjoy it!