Category Archives: Outdoors

Distinguishing Elderberry from Silky and Redosier Dogwood

The following is a “guest” post from my hubby- the guy who really knows his plants around here. We recently thought we spotted elderberries at a friend’s house- but Tim’s discerning eye second guessed our initial identification. Read on to find out how to distinguish these two look-alike plants from each other. 

Elderberry or Dogwood

Elderberries are ripening this time of year where we live, so if you have any interest in harvesting these berries, it is as good a time as ever to nail down your elderberry identification skills. Black Elderberry (sambucus nigra) shrubs are pretty distinctive, but if you are not paying close attention to what you are seeing, mistaking other plants for them is not impossible. At certain stages of development, a couple plants in particular appear the closest of all to Elderberry: the Silky Dogwood (cornus amomum) and the Redosier (Red Osier) Dogwood (cornus sericea). To complicate the trouble of precisely identifying Redosier Dogwood in contrast to the Silky Dogwood, Redosier is a variable species, which essentially means that its morphology is not always the same–different specimens can look different from each other. For our purposes, though, that is not very important; we are trying to distinguish the Dogwoods from Elderberry, not so much from each other.

If you take the time to google “elderberry look-alikes,” your search results will likely include references to Water Hemlock and Pokeberry–the former deathly poisonous and the latter arguably poisonous if used improperly. Aside from the risk-factor of mistaking those plants for Elderberry (which has its own share of toxicity-risks), there is almost no reason to fear mistaking Water Hemlock or Pokeberry for Elderberry. Those two plants are markedly different from Elderberry in fairly obvious ways–I won’t go into them in detail now, but suffice it to say, when identifying a plant, don’t hinge your identification on only one feature (e.g. berries, drupes or flowers growing in cyme patterns). Pay attention to the overall habit of the plant–the location, the time, duration, and color of the flowers (if any), whether it is woody or herbaceous, the pattern and color of the bark, a general sampling of the leaves–opposite, alternate, whorled–from many parts of the plant, the shape, margins, and vein structure of the leaves, the characteristics of the fruit, etc. If you observe carefully and thoroughly, and especially if you begin to learn the vocabulary of kingdom Plantae and attach deeper meaning to your sensory experience of these objects, you will gradually become more accurate in plant identification.

Having said that, let’s return to the Silky Dogwood. Here’s a close-up of its lovely flower cyme (that’s the name of that cluster pattern):

File:Cornus amomum - Silky Dogwood.jpg

(Photo Credit)

And here’s the Redosier Dogwood:

                                                          (Photo Credit)

  For comparison, here is the Black Elderberry bloom:

File:Sambucus nigra - Black Elderberry 2.jpg

(Photo Credit)

Certainly these flower clusters look similar. But that is not the only similarity they share (I’ll get to the differences in a moment). They both tend to grow in wet locations–though both are very tolerant plants–so you may even find them growing together (as we did recently).

The main thing that makes these Dogwoods more likely candidates for elderberry confusion than other look-alikes like Pokeberry and Water Hemlock is the fact that they too are shrubs of very similar proportions (from 6-10′ high) to elderberry.  Look at the Silky Dogwood for example:

                                                (Photo Credit)

And here, the Black Elderberry:

                                                                 (Photo Credit)

Clearly there are differences between them, but at least we are dealing with similar types of plants. The most conspicuous distinguishing features between these Dogwoods and the Elderberry, however, are in the leaves and the fruits. Elderberry leaves are compound. Silky Dogwood and Redosier Dogwood leaves are simple. Elderberry leaf margins are toothed. The dogwood leaves are smooth.  Study the following images to note the differences between the Elderberry leaf on the left and the Redosier Dogwood leaves on the right:

 IMG_20150806_191657605_HDRObserve also the following drawings of the Dogwoods and Elderberry courtesy of the USDA Plant Profiles.

Silky Dogwood (cornus amomum):

Large Line Drawing of Cornus amomum

(Image Credit)

Redosier Dogwood (cornus sericea):

Large Line Drawing of Cornus sericea

(Image Credit)

And finally, Black Elderberry (sambucus nigra):

Large Line Drawing of Sambucus nigra

(Image Credit)

Let’s turn to the berries and drupes. Note first the density and size of the cymes in both dogwoods as compared to the elderberry. The dogwoods’ cymes are smaller and less dense than the elderberry’s  (obviously the presence of berries or drupes will depend on fertilization), but the dogwoods’ drupes are larger than elderberries. Also be aware of the color of the fruit (this is one of the best ways to discern whether you’re dealing with a silky or redosier, too). At least where we live, elderberries ripen to a rich deep purple well before the silky or redosier fruits ripen. Thus, if you see ripe elderberries side by side with a dogwood, you should see that the dogwood fruits are still green. Observe the following photo; Redosier in the foreground, Elderberry in the background (just a few of the elderberries are starting to turn purple):

IMG_20150806_191552894Finally, a note about the color of the dogwood fruit: Redosier fruit turns whitish when ripe while Silky Dogwood’s is blueish. See the following images.

Silky Dogwood:

(Photo Credit)

Redosier Dogwood:

(Photo Credit)

And finally, just for contrast, Black Elderberry:

(Photo Credit)

So, to recap, pay close attention to these distinguishing features:

Leaves Leaf Margins Fruit Color when Ripe Time of ripening
Sambucus Nigra Compound Toothed Deep Purple Late July–September
Cornus Amomum Simple Smooth Blue Around September
Cornus Sericea Simple Smooth White After September

I hope at least some of this information is helpful. Do remember–if you are not sure what a plant is, first work hard to figure it out (because maybe you’ll learn something new). If you can’t figure it out with reasonable confidence, then don’t eat it for now–you’ll probably get another opportunity in the future!

Reflections From a Family Camping Trip

My little family of four had the privilege to go camping for a couple of nights last week. Granted, things like this are never simple with two young kids, but overall it was a successful and refreshing venture. It also got me thinking a lot about how I view our family and our daily activities.

reflections from a family camping trip

For one, I realize how much I complain about things that I really shouldn’t. Like the stress of managing housekeeping and child-rearing at the same time. Or how it’s hard to time different parts of a meal on three different burners when I’m fending off an unstable-newly-walking-child from my hot and open oven door at home. Or how I don’t have this or that household gadget that I’d like.

Somehow the simplicity and imprecision of camping help me to appreciate more what I have at home. It also helps me to let go of some of my high expectations of how everything turns out. I think this is mostly because my attention is changed from the pressure of getting everything done to the joy of spending time with my family and enjoying the process of what we do have to accomplish.

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For example, at home dinner is a high-speed task. When I’m camping, it’s a time consuming process- but one that we take pleasure in and work at together. At home, making the bed seems tedious. When camping, it’s actually way more effort to set up the tent, camping pads, etc., but somehow it seems more enjoyable because the focus is on doing it together and spending quality time together.

Another wonderful part of camping is that so many of our daily distractions are removed. No internet. No cell phone reception. No TV. No knocks on the door. I’m not an advocate for being isolated, but I do believe it’s very important to “unplug” and simply enjoy the people closest to you. I realize so much more how resourceful my husband is when I am actually watching him work to solve problems. I hear even more how funny and creative my son is when he’s telling stories. I notice my daughter’s coordination in her steps growing stronger each day. It’s not that I don’t see these things when I’m surrounded by technology. However, when we remove the distractions around us, we focus on what is most important with far greater clarity and appreciation.

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Wellsboro Trip Aug 2014 062By the same token, camping provides me more time for reflection.  Have I pursued my God in prayer? Have I held my family close to me, grateful for each day with them gifted to me? Have I been charitable to those around me? Have I been sour and selfish all day? How can I right my wrongs? How can I live more graciously, faithfully, patiently? Under the great sky at night, there is ample time for these types of questions.

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So my question is this:  could I adapt my camping frame of mind for my every day?

Could I settle into my mundane routine with joy and let our regular tasks become an opportunity to spend time together? Could I take quiet time to focus on my children and husband and reawaken my love for them daily? Could I “decompress” a few minutes at the end of the day to purposefully feed my soul? Can I make each day a fresh chance at life?

After all, I certainly shouldn’t save all the best things in life for vacation, right?

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The Self Sufficient HomeAcre